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Teknologi Hydrothermal Untuk Pengolahan Sampah

Samsuhadi Samoen

Pertumbuhan jumlah penduduk dunia di beberapa tahun belakangan sudah sedemikian cepat, sehingga kini diperkirakan sudah mencapai sekitar 7 milyar jiwa, dan diprediksikan pada tahun 2030 penduduk dunia mencapai 8,5 milyar jiwa (PBB, 2015). Sebagian besar penduduk ini bermukim di kota besar. Saat ini, 54 persen dari populasi dunia tinggal di wilayah perkotaan, proporsi yang diperkirakan akan meningkat menjadi sebesar 66 persen pada tahun 2050.

Kehidupan masyarakat modern memproduksi sampah lebih banyak daripada masyarakat tradisional. Kenyataan ini bisa disaksikan di kota-kota besar. Contohnya, produksi sampah di wilayah Jabodetabek, jika diambil angka rata-rata produksi sampah per orang sekitar 500–1.500 gram per hari, Jakarta saja bisa menghasilkan sampah sekitar 6.500 ton per hari. Sampah ini umumnya dikirim ke tempat pemrosesan akhir (TPA). Di TPA, sampah yang tertumpuk, sedapat mungkin diproses dengan cara reduce, reuse dan recycle (Undang-undang no. 18 tahun 2008).

Tumpukan sampah itu (terutama sampah organik) dapat memproduksi gas pembakar, yakni gas metana. Setelah melalui sistem pengumpulan (pemanenan gas), gas metana ini dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar dan membangkitkan listrik. Prosesnya mudah, gas metana dibakar kemudian dikonversi menjadi pembangkit listrik, dimana hal ini sudah dilakukan pada beberapa TPA, antara lain di TPA Suwung, Bali dan TPA Bantar Gebang, Bekasi, Jawa Barat. Proses ini sudah menghasilkan listrik beberapa megawatt, yang dapat dipakai untuk keperluan TPA dalam pemrosesan sampah. Sisanya juga telah manfaatkan untuk menerangi rumah2 disekitar TPA.

Metode pemanenan gas metana ini, sekarang sudah dikembangkan di berbagai TPA lainnya di Indonesia. Keuntungan yang didapat dari pemanfaatan gas metana ini dapat mengurangi dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan, karena gas metana ini merupakan penyebab efek rumah kaca yang sangat tinggi. Akan tetapi karena potensi bahayanya ini, kabarnya di Eropa pada tahun 2008 yang lalu mendapat tentangan dari masyarakat dan akhirnya dilarang untuk dipertahankan.

Beberapa tahun belakangan ini, di Tokyo Institute of Technology, memperkenalkan teknologi Hydrothermal yang diberi nama RRS (Resource Recycling System). RSS memanfaatkan tekanan dan uap suhu tinggi yang lebih ramah lingkungan, relatif murah, dan lebih sederhana teknologinya. Teknologi ini sesuai dengan kebutuhan pengolahan sampah di Indonesia yang umumnya terdiri dari 80% bahan organik dan plastik.

Proses awal pada RSS adalah sampah dihancurkan, dikeringkan, dan dihilangkan baunya dengan menggunakan gas bertekanan dengan suhu tinggi. Kemudian dihasilkan produk menyerupai bubuk batu bara melalui pemisahan uap air. Sampah campuran ini dapat menghasilkan bahan bakar padat yang dapat dicampur dengan batu bara sebagai bahan bakar PLTU dan lain lain. Diharapkan RSS dapat menjadi solusi permasalahan sampah di Indonesia dan upaya mendorong pengembangan teknologi, industri dan penelitian di bidang persampahan di Indonesia.

Sudah saatnya kita mengupayakan ‘waste to energy’***

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