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MEA: Insinyur Indonesia vs Insinyur Asing dalam Pembangunan Infrastruktur Indonesia

L. Tri Wijaya, ST., MT., IPP
Dosen Fakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya

ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) atau Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN (MEA) sudah berjalan sejak akhir 2015, dimana ini merupakan bentuk integrasi ekonomi yang sangat potensial di kawasan ASEAN maupun dunia. Barang, jasa, modal dan investasi akan bergerak bebas di kawasan ini. Integrasi ekonomi regional memang suatu kecenderungan dan keharusan di era global saat ini. Hal ini menyiratkan aspek persaingan yang menyodorkan peluang sekaligus tantangan bagi semua negara. Skema AEC 2015 tentang ketenagakerjaan, misalnya, memberlakukan liberalisasi tenaga kerja profesional, seperti dokter, insinyur, akuntan dan sebagainya. Celakanya Human Development Index (HDI) Indonesia masih tergolong rendah. Di antara 182 negara di dunia, Indonesia berada di urutan 111. Bahkan di Asia Tenggara, Indonesia masih berada di urutan keenam dari 10 negara. Kita masih berada di bawah Filipina, Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, dan Singapura.

Dalam pembangunan infrastruktur, kebutuhan tenaga kerja insinyur yang merupakan salah satu “kekuatan” Indonesia masih kalah jauh dari negara tetangga baik dari segi jumlah/rasio serta sertifikasi keahlian. Seperti yang disampaikan Bapak Presiden Ir. Joko Widodo beberapa hari lalu: “Ini yang kita khawatirkan, kita akan menggarap infrastruktur, baik jalan tol, kereta api, dermaga, kemudian investor sudah masuk, ketakutan dan kekhawatiran kita kekurangan SDM di bidang teknik, ini yang agak sedikit kita khawatirkan.” Presiden Ir. Joko Widodo khawatir pembangunan infrastruktur besar-besaran yang akan mulai dibangun 2015 dan lima tahun mendatang terkendala. Sebab, Indonesia saat ini mengalami kekurangan insinyur.

Dalam lain kesempatan, Menko Perekonomian, Sofyan Djalil, mengatakan bahwa saat ini sebagian insinyur yang ada, bekerja di luar bidangnya. “Kita kekurangan insinyur untuk pembangunan infrastruktur kita. Ini sedang kita hitung, dan kita khawatir hal ini,” jelasnya. Harus diakui tenaga kerja insinyur sangat dibutuhkan dalam menggerakkan industri EPC (Engineering Procurement, and Construction) nasional. Masalahnya, saat ini, 70% proyek besar di Indonesia dikuasai industri EPC asing seperti pembangkit listrik, pengeboran migas laut dalam, dan lainnya. Kemudian EPC nasional masih dianggap kurang mampu dalam pekerjaan yang menuntut kompleksitas tinggi. Dengan melihat permasalahan dan peluang yang ada, maka perlunya penerbitan kebijakan yang mensyaratkan keterlibatan pelaku industri EPC nasional dalam setiap pelaksanaan proyek infrastruktur. Dimana target yang diharapkan yaitu pelaku industri EPC Indonesia memiliki daya saing untuk mengerjakan proyek infrastruktur nasional, bahkan regional maupun internasional. Tentunya dengan kualifikasi dan kompetensi tingkat dunia. Disamping itu perlunya peningkatan jumlah perusahaan swasta yang mendukung industri EPC tersebut, dalam hal ini yaitu industri pemasok kontraktor seperti baja, semen, heavy equipment, dan lainnya. Maka disinilah pentingnya memersiapkan generasi insinyur “technopreneur”, yang mampu menciptakan lapangan pekerjaan tersebut, bukan hanya pencari pekerjaan dengan gaji tinggi yang selama ini didominasi perusahaan asing. Untuk dapat menjadi prioritas dalam pembangunan infrastruktur tersebut, tentunya perlu dipersiapkan pula pendidikan Insinyur yang tidak hanya menghasilkan tenaga pelaksana lapangan pembangunan infrastruktur saja, namun mampu menggerakkan proses bisnis pembangunan infrastruktur tersebut.

Beberapa solusi yang ditawarkan untuk meningkatkan peran insinyur Indonesia dalam pembangunan infrastruktur menghadapi AEC 2015 di antaranya adalah mengubah ‘mindset’ dari pencari kerja menjadi pencipta kerja produktif sehingga kita bisa mengurangi pengeluaran dan memperbesar pemasukan bagi negara kita. Diversifikasi dan peningkatan nilai tambah bahan (added value) peran insinyur dalam pembangunan infrastruktur agar tidak hanya mendahulukan EPC asing, namun melibatkan EPC nasional yang berdaya saing internasional. Meningkatkan `competitiveness’ sumberdaya manusia khususnya insinyur karena kunci dari kemajuan bangsa adalah bukan karena kekayaan alamnya melainkan SDM yang ada di dalamnya. Memersiapkan lulusan perguruan tinggi yang mampu berkompetisi minimal di tingkat ASEAN (kedepan semua profesi harus memiliki sertifikasi tingkat ASEAN) dan membangkitkan semangat tinggi seluruh tenaga profesional.***

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