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Konsep Pesawat Terbang Irit Bahan Bakar

Vega Hannovianto H.

Peneliti Aeroelastisitas, Pusat Penerbangan dan Antariksa Jerman (DLR)

Dalam 20 tahun ke depan jumlah pesawat penumpang di seluruh dunia menurut prediksi perusahaan Airbus, yang merupakan produsen pesawat terbang terbesar di Eropa, akan bertambah sekitar 20.000 unit. Karena itu pesawat yang irit bahan bakar pun menjadi semakin diminati, antara lain guna menghemat pemakaian sumber daya dan meminimalisasi pemanasan global.

Salah satu upaya untuk menurunkan konsumsi bahan bakar adalah mengurangi hambatan udara pada pesawat. Gaya gesek pada permukaan pesawat, termasuk sayap merupakan faktor yang berkontribusi terhadap besarnya hambatan di atas. Pesawat penumpang bermesin jet pada umumnya mempunyai konfigurasi sayap penyapu belakang (backward swept wing, lihat gambar 1 tengah). Aliran udara yang melewati sayap penyapu belakang tersebut, karena pengaruh berbagai efek aerodinamis cenderung lebih cepat menjadi turbulen dan mengakibatkan gaya gesek lebih besar dibandingkan kalau aliran udara itu laminar.


Gambar 1 – Macam-macam sudut penyapu sayap, sumber:

Untuk menangani hal ini Pusat Penerbangan dan Antariksa Jerman (DLR, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt) mengembangkan konsep yang dinamakan LamAiR (Laminar Aircraft Research) untuk pesawat dengan ukuran sebesar Airbus A320 dan memiliki sayap penyapu depan (forward swept wing, lihat gambar 1 kanan).

Gambar 2 – Konsep LamAiR, sumber:

Dengan konfigurasi ini, aliran udara yang melewati sayap cenderung tetap laminar, sehingga dapat mengurangi gaya gesek yang tidak diinginkan sampai sebanyak 18%. Sejauh ini, sayap penyapu depan dapat ditemukan pada pesawat Grumman X-29, Sukhoi Su-47 dan Hamburger Flugzeugbau HFB 320 Hansa Jet, walaupun tujuan utama konfigurasi tersebut bukan untuk mendapatkan aliran udara laminar.

Sayap penyapu depan di satu pihak mempunyai keunggulan aerodinamika seperti yang disebutkan di atas, namun di sisi lain memunculkan tantangan dalam bidang struktur, karena pada kecepatan tinggi respon struktur cenderung menjadi tidak stabil. Untuk mengatasi hal ini, struktur tidak lagi menggunakan aluminium, melainkan material komposit pada sebagian besar komponennya, seperti pada pesawat Airbus A350 dan Boeing 787 yang beberapa tahun terakhir mulai mengudara.

Komposit merupakan gabungan dari dua atau lebih material untuk membentuk material baru dengan sifat-sifat yang lebih unggul dari material asalnya. Pada umumnya komposit terdiri dari serat karbon yang direkat berlapis dengan polymer menjadi satu plat. Selain memiliki massa jenis yang rendah, keunikan komposit dibandingkan logam adalah sifatnya yang anisotropik. Sifat ini dapat ditemukan pada kayu yang kekuatan tariknya lebih besar bila beban berarah sejajar dengan serat kayu, dibandingkan jika bebannya tegak lurus serat kayu. Pada sayap penyapu depan, anisotropi ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk memanipulasi karakter struktur sehingga dapat dirancang lebih stabil dan ringan dibandingkan struktur logam.

Dengan penerapan kedua teknologi ini dan ditambah dengan inovasi di bidang mesin pesawat, konsep LamAiR diprediksi dapat mengurangi konsumsi bahan bakar hingga 9%.

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